This Advanced Search screen allows searching of the title, keyword, author, publication title or date of the database, or any combination of some or all of those fields.
Title: A search of only the exact words in the title of the citation. A simple title search may be useful, for example, if one knows the specific title or part of title of a citation.
Example: TI("Unrelated Bus*")
Keyword: A search of the keywords associated with that citation. A keyword search is more powerful than a simple title search, because the keywords are also compared against the system of "thesaurus equivalents" (including Code sections) of those keywords in the database. However, because only selected citations are "tagged" with keywords and thesaurus equivalents, a pure keyword search may be limited.
Author: Searches by author's full name. A variety of name formats is supported, including searching by last name only, by first and last name (in that order), or by last name first (separated by a comma). Middle names may also be included.
Journal Name: This will yield results only if the citations sought are from a law journal or other periodical publication. If one knows, for example, that a certain article was published in the NYU Law Journal, this search field could be helpful.
Syntax:: JN(Journal Name)
Example: JN("Yale Law*")
Date: A beginning year, ending year, or exact date may be chosen. The results will include the beginning and ending year chosen. Thus, choosing "2011" as an beginning year and "2014" as an ending year will yield citations from 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014.
Syntax:: DA(>Year); DA(=Year); DA(<Year)
Example: DA(>1993 and <1999); DA(=2001)
The Boolean operators OR, AND and NOT are fully supported. They must be fully spelled out: any abbreviations will lead to a syntax error. The following describes the functions of the Boolean operators:
OR: retrieves either search term or both
AND: retrieves search terms in the same document
NOT: retrieves citations not containing the term or terms following the operator. This us usually used in combination with another operator (e.g., "A AND NOT B") but can be used alone at the beginning of the search statement (e.g., "NOT(B) AND A"). Parentheses are optional if only one word follows NOT; otherwise, parentheses are required.
The Search Engine uses standard Boolean logic to determine the order of execution; thus, a search of "A OR B AND C" will first execute the "A AND C" portion of the search request, and then the "A OR..." portion. If no connector is specified between words, "AND" is the default operator. For more advanced Boolean search options, use the "Advanced Search" screen.
Quotation marks are used to search for entire phrases. Because of limitations in the software, quotation marks must be used in certain circumstances: when searching for a phrase that contains a common word such as "the," "from," "for," "a," etc; and when searching for a code section containing more than one character within parentheses (e.g., a search for 512(b)(13) must be in quotation marks, because 13 is more than one character).
Search fields are chosen with an intuitive, easy-to-learn system. The field is prompted by a two-letter symbol, followed by parentheses, and the terms to be searched in that field are placed within the parentheses. "AU" prompts a search of the Author field, "KW" prompts a search of the Keyword field, "TI" prompts a search of the Title field, "JN" prompts a search of the Journal field, and "DA" prompts a search of the date field. Any or all of these fields may be combined in a search, but fields may not themselves be combined with connectors. Thus, the search KW(UBIT) OR TI("Private Benefit") is valid, but the search TI OR KW("Private Benefit") is not valid.
A word/phrase expander (*) is supported. The word/phrase expander (*) may be used at the end of a word, part of a word or phrase to retrieve all results beginning with the portion typed. It must be used immediately following the search request, with no spaces preceding it.
Example: "Unrelated Bus*" will return all records containing "Unrelated Business," "Unrelated Business Income Tax," "Unrelated Business Taxable Income," etc.
There are four different options for the format in which search results are displayed: a Web page, a Microsoft Word document, a WordPerfect Document, or an Adobe Acrobat file. Depending on your web browser configuration and the software installed on your computer, either the documents will open in a browser window or you will be prompted to save the file. Please note that formats other than a web page take more time to process.